TRACE Matrix

The TRACE Bribery Risk Matrix® (TRACE Matrix) measures business bribery risk in 200 countries, territories, and autonomous and semi-autonomous regions. The overall country risk score is a combined and weighted score of four domains: Business Interactions with GovernmentAnti-Bribery Deterrence and EnforcementGovernment and Civil Service Transparency; and Capacity for Civil Society Oversight, including the role of the media. The domain scores are derived from nine subdomains. The TRACE Matrix was originally developed in 2014 in collaboration with RAND Corporation. It is updated annually by TRACE.

With the 2019 edition of the Bribery Risk Matrix, TRACE has also launched the Bribery Risk Typology and interactive map, which provides comparative context for interpreting Matrix scores based on factors such as state fragility and economic complexity. Both tools are available in the TRACE Matrix data browser.

Download the TRACE Matrix Information Pack       

Access the TRACE Matrix Data Browser

 

The 2019 TRACE Matrix information pack includes:

  • 2019 TRACE Bribery Risk Matrix Scores
  • TRACE Matrix FAQ
  • TRACE Matrix Infographic
  • Guide to Country Reports
  • Methodology Report

Download a short description of the Matrix in ChineseEnglish, French, GermanItalianPortuguese or Spanish.    


According to this year’s data, Somalia, South Sudan, North Korea, Yemen and Venezuela presented the highest risk of bribe demands. New Zealand, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland presented the lowest bribery risk.


TRACE has brought some significant methodological improvements to the 2019 edition of the Matrix:

  • TRACE launched the Bribery Risk Typology, which groups jurisdictions based on factors that have been identified as having a significant effect on the bribery risk environment at the national level, including state fragility, resource wealth, enforcement, and economic size and complexity. The Typology is available in the data browser.
  • TRACE increased the Bribery Risk Matrix’s reliability by adjusting the methodology used for smaller jurisdictions that lacked complete data and now employs a prediction method based on a wider range of available information. As a result of this change, some smaller jurisdictions saw improvements in their rankings.

To learn more, download the 2019 Methodology Report

Read the press release here. For press inquiries, contact Gigi O'Connell at [email protected].


Information from the TRACE Matrix is incorporated into TRACE due diligence reports and third party risk assessment tool, TRACEsort, which uses scores from the TRACE Matrix in its assessment algorithm. TRACE members enjoy complimentary access to TRACEsort. Contact a TRACE representative to learn more by writing to [email protected] or by calling (+1) 410.990.0076. 

“Assessment of country risk is fundamental to developing an effective compliance program and risk-based due diligence procedures.”


Charles Duross
Partner at Morrison & Foerster LLP and former Deputy Chief in the Fraud Section in the Criminal Division of the U.S. Department of Justice


“In my experience, there is nothing else on the market that gauges risk with the accuracy and simplicity of the TRACE Risk Matrix. It is a critical part of our risk assessment process at Accenture.” 


Daniel Seltzer
Senior Director of Anticorruption and Government Compliance 
Accenture


2019 Results

TRACE Matrix Risk Levels


Full table (excluding subdomain scores) and rankings:

Although the resulting index can be used to rank countries by their composite scores, it is also possible to view the results for specific risk factors which make up the composite score in order to identify what drives the overall risk score. This allows compliance professionals not only to identify where a country falls in terms of overall business bribery risk, but also to use the domain and subdomain scores to tailor their compliance and due diligence practices appropriately and make better resource allocation decisions.



Rank Country
Risk Score
Domain 1: Interactions
with Government
Domain 2 : Anti-bribery Deterrence and Enforcement Domain 3 : Governmental
and Civil Service Transparency
Domain 4 : Capacity for
Civil Society Oversight
1 New Zealand
4 1 11 1 8
2 Norway
7 13 8 1 1
3 Denmark
7 9 1 16 1
4 Sweden
8 13 11 1 6
5 Finland
9 15 9 5 4
6 United Kingdom
11 15 14 4 10
7 Netherlands
12 17 8 5 10
8 Canada
14 22 13 6 7
9 Germany
15 21 13 11 8
10 Hong Kong
16 6 14 11 38
11 Iceland
17 22 10 13 17
12 Singapore
17 7 6 12 47
13 Luxembourg
17 25 5 10 19
14 Estonia
18 23 16 16 11
15 United States
18 26 22 7 11
16 Austria
18 25 11 12 14
17 Australia
18 25 17 10 14
18 Switzerland
18 23 11 24 8
19 France
21 30 22 8 19
20 Belgium
22 35 15 15 12
21 Ireland
22 24 21 25 17
22 Portugal
24 33 19 22 13
23 South Korea
24 25 27 20 24
24 Lithuania
25 35 26 21 9
25 Japan
25 27 24 30 18
26 Taiwan
26 29 25 34 12
27 Georgia
26 16 37 31 31
28 Israel
27 45 23 10 16
29 United Arab Emirates
31 7 20 46 64
30 Monaco
31 54 23 14 11
31 Chile
31 42 27 22 25
32 Slovenia
32 47 30 23 17
34 Czech Republic
34 47 24 32 19
35 Italy
34 48 37 19 22
36 Uruguay
34 53 24 28 14
37 Costa Rica
34 52 25 32 12
38 Liechtenstein
35 69 16 12 11
39 Cyprus
36 51 30 31 19
40 Poland
37 48 35 32 26
41 Spain
38 45 37 35 29
42 Latvia
38 48 23 53 16
43 San Marino
38 57 20 34 22
44 Malta
39 52 33 36 22
45 Kosovo
40 45 31 41 34
46 Slovak Republic
40 58 34 32 18
47 Tuvalu
40 37 46 69 11
48 Oman
40 37 34 30 58
49 St. Vincent and the Grenadines
41 43 39 45 35
50 Jamaica
41 56 45 30 22
51 Puerto Rico
41 54 41 49 11
52 Bhutan
41 47 10 48 44
53 Marshall Islands
42 36 33 72 28
54 Dominica
42 47 40 38 39
55 South Africa
42 65 33 24 27
56 Qatar
43 33 34 53 55
57 Bahrain
43 44 26 30 65
58 Malaysia
43 42 31 41 53
59 Mauritius
43 45 33 58 31
60 Montenegro
43 59 30 36 31
61 St. Lucia
43 46 37 59 28
62 Greece
44 58 44 37 24
63 St. Kitts and Nevis
44 45 47 57 26
64 Antigua and Barbuda
44 51 55 40 30
65 Croatia
45 62 36 35 30
66 Barbados
45 58 41 51 19
67 Grenada
46 46 57 53 30
68 Romania
46 64 32 42 27
69 Rwanda
46 36 36 50 68
70 Botswana
46 53 36 44 43
71 Colombia
46 62 52 26 34
72 Namibia
47 59 34 44 35
73 Senegal
47 51 51 47 36
74 Armenia
47 40 53 59 43
75 Macau
47 75 14 38 30
76 Cape Verde
47 56 38 48 38
77 Bulgaria
47 59 47 42 33
78 India
48 57 48 41 38
79 Azerbaijan
48 41 43 44 67
80 Ghana
48 62 43 49 24
81 Bahamas
48 67 30 52 23
82 Panama
48 55 63 46 27
83 Samoa
48 54 35 63 31
84 Thailand
48 47 48 39 60
85 Macedonia
49 52 46 43 50
86 Tonga
49 56 48 50 36
87 Seychelles
49 71 29 39 35
88 Fiji
49 57 47 48 39
89 Peru
50 65 49 42 31
90 Indonesia
50 59 52 49 35
91 Jordan
51 48 49 43 67
92 Micronesia
51 46 52 77 35
93 Saudi Arabia
51 45 43 52 69
94 Vanuatu
51 57 27 66 43
95 Albania
52 64 51 41 41
96 Hungary
52 57 47 51 47
97 Kenya
52 65 49 44 40
98 Cayman Islands
52 86 19 34 33
99 Tunisia
52 63 57 51 32
100 Brazil
53 74 55 34 31
101 Argentina
53 77 49 38 26
102 Palau
53 72 50 53 20
103 Philippines
54 65 50 46 43
104 Burkina Faso
54 65 53 50 38
105 Serbia
54 65 44 50 44
106 Guatemala
55 60 55 60 39
107 Zambia
55 66 36 50 53
108 Belarus
55 47 45 59 72
109 Mongolia
55 72 42 54 35
110 Russian Federation
55 57 54 52 57
111 Sri Lanka
55 62 54 57 44
112 Dominican Republic
55 66 58 52 38
113 Bosnia and Herzegovina
55 74 49 37 46
114 Aruba
55 81 45 47 25
115 Trinidad and Tobago
56 65 65 65 23
116 Nepal
56 60 58 54 49
117 Moldova
56 67 48 52 45
118 Sao Tome and Principe
56 55 64 66 44
119 Paraguay
57 62 62 52 48
120 El Salvador
57 64 59 62 38
121 Kuwait
57 80 36 42 46
122 Ukraine
57 74 54 50 36
123 Turkey
57 53 51 55 71
124 Maldives
57 65 56 45 55
125 Mexico
57 69 56 46 47
126 Kazakhstan
58 58 50 52 68
127 Togo
58 53 58 72 53
128 Papua New Guinea
58 70 51 59 40
129 Benin
58 61 62 67 42
130 Uganda
58 72 48 45 55
131 Kyrgyz Republic
59 71 59 53 42
132 Suriname
59 66 48 75 37
133 China
59 47 56 59 80
134 Bermuda
59 97 22 61 14
135 Solomon Islands
59 72 18 81 42
136 Gambia
59 55 58 56 71
137 Ivory Coast
59 66 62 58 48
138 Niger
60 54 59 69 61
139 Guyana
60 74 57 60 36
140 Lebanon
60 75 55 56 40
141 Brunei Darussalam
60 61 43 65 63
142 Eswatini
60 55 37 75 70
143 Cuba
60 65 60 48 64
144 Lesotho
60 58 48 80 54
145 Ecuador
60 75 53 51 49
146 Belize
60 72 46 72 38
147 Mali
61 70 55 60 50
148 East Timor
61 71 56 64 43
149 Malawi
61 74 56 60 42
150 Honduras
61 64 63 66 53
151 Guinea
62 64 60 73 46
152 Mauritania
62 70 57 59 55
153 Pakistan
62 77 56 48 54
154 Mozambique
62 68 60 55 61
155 Kiribati
63 79 46 73 36
156 Tanzania
63 71 58 58 56
157 Myanmar
64 69 61 70 54
158 Sierra Leone
65 78 53 61 52
159 Vietnam
65 66 51 62 75
160 Morocco
65 68 73 60 61
161 Egypt
65 66 51 63 76
162 Nigeria
65 81 58 58 49
163 Algeria
66 77 53 67 53
164 Djibouti
66 51 51 86 82
165 Liberia
66 83 48 68 46
166 Bolivia
66 83 69 60 41
167 Comoros
66 54 80 85 60
168 Afghanistan
66 80 69 54 52
169 Iran
67 73 55 58 74
170 Haiti
68 79 55 71 54
171 Cameroon
68 72 71 66 61
172 Nicaragua
69 73 69 75 56
173 Gabon
70 86 68 52 61
174 Sudan
70 60 63 86 80
175 Tajikistan
71 72 65 64 80
176 Ethiopia
71 73 59 61 85
177 Syria
72 86 47 63 71
178 Bangladesh
72 86 63 60 64
179 Madagascar
72 81 72 74 53
180 Zimbabwe
72 75 62 76 67
181 Uzbekistan
73 69 66 76 79
182 Iraq
73 78 62 82 62
183 Laos
75 70 67 79 85
184 Guinea-Bissau
75 72 74 93 65
185 Angola
76 89 61 78 63
186 Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville)
77 84 73 79 63
187 Central African Republic
78 78 82 88 65
188 Eritrea
79 54 84 100 99
189 Cambodia
79 92 68 80 63
190 Burundi
79 64 80 88 98
191 Dem. Rep. of the Congo
82 92 80 76 70
192 Equatorial Guinea
82 76 86 90 82
193 Turkmenistan
82 89 53 81 92
194 Libya
82 91 70 84 74
195 Chad
84 88 87 85 74
196 Venezuela
85 100 78 78 71
197 Yemen
85 86 75 93 85
198 North Korea
86 70 100 89 100
199 South Sudan
92 95 81 97 89
200 Somalia
94 96 88 98 90