TRACE Matrix

The TRACE Bribery Risk Matrix® (TRACE Matrix) measures business bribery risk in 200 countries. The overall country risk score is a combined and weighted score of four domains – Business Interactions with GovernmentAnti-bribery Deterrence and EnforcementGovernment and Civil Service Transparency and Capacity for Civil Society Oversight, including the role of the media – as well as nine subdomains. The TRACE Matrix was originally developed in 2014 in collaboration with RAND Corporation. It is updated annually by TRACE.

With TRACE’s 2018 edition of the TRACE Matrix, TRACE has also launched the TRACE Matrix Data Browser, an online tool allowing users to sort and group the data from which the Matrix scores are derived and identify trends and patterns that may be relevant in understanding the risk environment each country presents.

Download the TRACE Matrix Information Pack       

Access the TRACE Matrix Data Browser

 

The full 2018 TRACE Matrix information pack, includes:

  • 2018 TRACE Bribery Risk Matrix Scores
  • TRACE Matrix FAQ
  • TRACE Matrix Infographic
  • Guide to Country Reports
  • Methodology Report

Download a short description of the Matrix in: EnglishFrenchItalianPortugueseSpanish or Simplified Chinese.

In the updated edition of the TRACE Matrix, New Zealand, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland rank among the least risky countries, while Somalia, Libya, Venezuela, Chad, and Turkmenistan appear among the worst.

In collaboration with experts in the fields of political science, economics, and corruption studies, TRACE has brought some significant methodological improvements to the 2018 edition of the Matrix.

  • The most notable methodological improvement is the replacement of the prior “Proscription” subdomain—a measure of the extent of each country’s enactment of anti-corruption legislation—with a new “Dissuasion” subdomain that gauges the informal deterrent effect of a country’s attitudes toward bribery.
  • Variables from more sources than ever before are included in this year’s edition. Notable additions include data from the World Values Survey and the United Nations’ assessments of the degree of e-government development.

To learn more download the 2018 Methodology Report.

Read the full 2018 TRACE Bribery Risk Matrix press release. For press inquiries, contact Caitlin Seymour at cseymour@traceinternational.org.


Information from the TRACE Matrix is incorporated into TRACE due diligence reports and third party risk assessment tool, TRACEsort, which uses scores from the TRACE Matrix in its assessment algorithm. TRACE members enjoy complimentary access to TRACEsort. Contact a TRACE representative to learn more by writing to info@TRACEinternational.org or by calling (+1) 410.990.0076. 

“Assessment of country risk is fundamental to developing an effective compliance program and risk-based due diligence procedures.”


Charles Duross
Partner at Morrison & Foerster LLP and former Deputy Chief in the Fraud Section in the Criminal Division of the U.S. Department of Justice


“In my experience, there is nothing else on the market that gauges risk with the accuracy and simplicity of the TRACE Risk Matrix. It is a critical part of our risk assessment process at Accenture.” 


Daniel Seltzer
Senior Director of Anticorruption and Government Compliance 
Accenture


2018 Results

TRACE Matrix Risk Levels


Full table (excluding subdomain scores) and rankings:

Although the resulting index can be used to rank countries by their composite scores, it is also possible to view the results for specific risk factors which make up the composite score in order to identify what drives the overall risk score. This allows compliance professionals not only to identify where a country falls in terms of overall business bribery risk, but also to use the domain and subdomain scores to tailor their compliance and due diligence practices appropriately and make better resource allocation decisions.



Rank Country
Risk Score
Domain 1: Interactions
with Government
Domain 2 : Anti-bribery Deterrence and Enforcement Domain 3 : Governmental
and Civil Service Transparency
Domain 4 : Capacity for
Civil Society Oversight
1 New Zealand
5 1 9 6 9
2 Sweden
5 7 10 1 3
3 Norway
7 13 5 1 1
4 Denmark
8 9 3 17 1
5 Finland
9 14 6 9 4
6 Netherlands
11 15 7 7 9
7 United Kingdom
12 17 10 7 9
8 Germany
13 20 12 10 7
9 Canada
15 25 9 10 8
10 Iceland
16 20 13 13 14
11 Luxembourg
16 22 1 16 18
12 Singapore
17 4 4 17 46
13 Switzerland
17 22 10 22 7
14 Hong Kong
17 7 13 18 38
15 Estonia
18 23 20 15 11
16 Australia
18 26 15 11 14
17 Austria
19 26 19 15 13
18 United States
21 32 23 11 12
19 Ireland
21 20 23 27 17
20 Portugal
21 25 25 21 13
21 France
22 34 18 8 17
22 Belgium
23 31 22 19 11
23 Lithuania
24 37 13 23 8
24 Taiwan
24 26 28 30 12
25 South Korea
24 25 25 22 26
26 Japan
25 30 21 27 18
27 Georgia
26 17 31 32 30
28 Monaco
29 14 16
29 United Arab Emirates
29 8 11 49 58
30 Israel
29 48 24 14 14
31 Slovenia
30 41 32 23 17
32 Czech Republic
32 43 26 31 18
33 Uruguay
32 48 24 30 13
34 Chile
33 43 32 23 27
36 Poland
35 41 34 35 25
37 Qatar
35 30 7 45 52
38 Spain
35 41 39 33 26
39 Latvia
36 46 13 55 14
40 Italy
36 49 54 18 21
41 Liechtenstein
38 67 12 8
42 San Marino
38 48 18 34 37
43 Slovak Republic
38 62 31 23 14
44 Malta
38 52 33 35 20
45 Oman
39 34 34 36 54
46 Bhutan
39 42 11 52 41
47 Cyprus
39 50 40 40 19
48 Costa Rica
40 60 32 36 12
49 St. Kitts and Nevis
40 39 45 54 24
50 Bahrain
40 42 16 31 61
51 St. Lucia
40 38 37 60 26
52 Jamaica
42 53 62 32 20
53 Croatia
42 55 41 35 29
54 Dominica
43 53 40 30 38
55 Samoa
43 44 30 63 30
56 Greece
43 51 52 40 25
57 South Africa
43 66 29 25 30
58 Kosovo
43 52 31 32
59 Tonga
44 47 46 50 30
60 Mauritius
44 53 29 57 27
61 Rwanda
44 34 29 54 64
62 Barbados
45 54 35 58 22
63 Malaysia
45 44 32 43 57
64 Montenegro
45 57 44 40 29
65 St. Vincent and the Grenadines
45 51 40 48 35
66 Bahamas
45 55 32 56 26
67 Colombia
45 59 53 28 33
68 Romania
46 64 41 38 24
69 Seychelles
46 62 28 44 31
70 Cape Verde
46 54 39 51 32
71 Marshall Islands
47 38 39 72 43
72 Ghana
47 62 41 51 21
73 Jordan
47 44 42 42 60
74 Botswana
47 55 24 55 42
75 Macedonia
47 51 43 41 51
76 Grenada
48 53 56 53 28
77 Armenia
48 48 55 48 42
78 Puerto Rico
48 52 41 52
79 Bulgaria
48 62 44 41 34
80 Palau
49 64 51 53 16
81 Peru
49 62 53 41 30
82 Senegal
49 52 58 53 32
83 Namibia
49 64 30 45 38
84 Panama
49 57 60 51 28
85 Saudi Arabia
50 43 43 53 64
86 India
50 62 56 40 36
87 Serbia
50 60 42 47 42
88 Tunisia
50 59 51 53 32
89 Thailand
50 52 47 42 58
90 Micronesia
51 47 52 77 31
91 Albania
51 61 49 44 40
92 Indonesia
51 59 52 50 36
93 Hungary
51 56 49 51 44
94 Antigua and Barbuda
51 59 53 54 33
95 Azerbaijan
51 52 43 43 63
96 Mauritania
51 57 64 40 45
97 Vanuatu
52 61 26 66 39
98 Mongolia
52 65 42 56 33
99 Fiji
52 63 57 49 34
100 Philippines
53 64 46 49 42
101 Kenya
53 66 50 46 39
102 Papua New Guinea
53 60 46 60 39
103 Nepal
53 56 63 49 47
104 Bosnia and Herzegovina
54 71 51 34 45
105 Ukraine
54 67 53 48 36
106 Maldives
54 61 56 45 47
107 Brunei Darussalam
54 56 33 57 60
108 Russian Federation
54 60 48 51 52
109 Benin
54 56 61 60 42
110 Zambia
54 64 27 57 53
111 Argentina
54 80 52 41 25
112 Brazil
55 78 54 36 33
113 Trinidad and Tobago
55 65 63 59 25
114 Belarus
55 48 43 61 68
115 Burkina Faso
55 62 66 55 36
116 Sao Tome and Principe
55 54 64 66 41
117 Niger
55 51 54 61 58
118 Kyrgyz Republic
55 63 58 53 42
119 Kuwait
56 76 37 48 40
120 Togo
56 60 51 62 44
121 Morocco
56 54 57 57 57
122 Ivory Coast
56 61 63 56 42
123 Moldova
56 68 49 52 42
124 Solomon Islands
56 63 17 81 46
125 Guatemala
56 64 63 59 37
126 Mali
56 57 51 66 49
127 Kazakhstan
57 59 47 53 63
128 El Salvador
57 65 58 62 35
129 Dominican Republic
57 65 64 56 38
130 Turkey
58 56 47 57 70
131 Paraguay
58 63 61 57 47
132 Uganda
58 70 51 49 51
133 Mexico
58 70 55 49 49
134 Lesotho
59 58 44 78 53
135 Liberia
60 75 41 66 38
136 Ecuador
60 69 54 57 50
137 East Timor
60 66 62 65 43
138 Sierra Leone
60 72 49 58 49
139 Tanzania
60 70 56 57 49
140 Mozambique
60 67 64 49 57
141 Aruba
60 69
142 Vietnam
61 61 47 60 72
143 Gambia
61 55 60 57 78
144 Malawi
61 72 57 67 40
145 Suriname
62 68 48 82 38
146 Guyana
62 74 58 65 39
147 Lebanon
62 72 62 68 37
148 Sri Lanka
62 61 68 69 55
149 Kiribati
63 78 44 73 38
150 Belize
63 77 45 74 38
151 China
63 65 51 54 76
152 Pakistan
63 78 62 50 52
153 Algeria
63 72 55 75 43
154 Cameroon
63 67 67 62 55
155 Bolivia
64 80 65 56 41
156 Iran
64 70 55 55 67
157 Gabon
64 72 66 54 57
158 Myanmar
64 66 62 70 55
159 Guinea
64 72 60 71 46
160 Honduras
64 71 67 65 50
161 Nigeria
65 79 61 59 48
162 Swaziland
65 66 41 73 69
163 Cayman Islands
65 74
164 Tuvalu
66 69 61
165 Cuba
66 74 50 65 63
166 Afghanistan
66 77 69 59 51
167 Comoros
66 57 84 79 57
168 Egypt
66 66 61 66 70
169 Tajikistan
68 65 63 70 75
170 Yemen
68 71 56 65 73
171 Syria
68 70 56 69 73
172 Haiti
68 74 83 67 49
173 Madagascar
68 72 70 78 52
174 Ethiopia
69 71 53 60 83
175 Iraq
69 70 62 79 60
176 Nicaragua
69 76 69 73 51
177 Uzbekistan
69 70 46 75 78
178 Sudan
70 72 78 60 70
179 Djibouti
70 61 51 87 81
180 Laos
70 58 70 80 81
181 Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville)
70 77 68 72 59
182 Bangladesh
70 87 61 58 61
183 Central African Republic
71 72 78 75 58
184 Dem. Rep. of the Congo
71 68 79 69 72
185 Zimbabwe
72 78 60 74 67
186 Bermuda
72 92
187 Angola
72 81 61 78 58
188 Guinea-Bissau
72 64 74 93 66
189 Macau
73 100
190 Cambodia
75 86 59 82 58
191 South Sudan
75 75 59 89 71
192 Eritrea
76 49 84 93 100
193 Burundi
78 61 80 92 92
194 Equatorial Guinea
79 74 85 91 74
195 North Korea
81 100 90 96
196 Turkmenistan
82 93 48 80 88
197 Chad
82 83 78 95 70
198 Venezuela
82 99 75 74 67
199 Libya
83 88 78 89 70
200 Somalia
92 90 89 100 88